Framework Agreement Introduction

The Framework Agreement on First Nation Land Management (Framework Agreement) is an historic, government-to-government agreement signed on February 12, 1996 between the original First Nations who created and advocated for it, and the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.  It is an initiative developed by these First Nations to opt out of the 42 lands related sections of the Indian Act.  The Framework Agreement recognizes First Nations’ inherent right to govern their lands.

Today, the Framework Agreement has expanded to include an ever-growing number of communities across Canada who are interested in replacing the lands restrictions of the Indian Act with the legal framework developed in a community land code.  Only those First Nations who are signatory to the agreement are affected by its application.

Each signatory community to the Framework Agreement assumes the administration and full law-making authority of their reserve lands, environment and natural resources, when they ratify their land code. Canada ratified and implemented the Framework Agreement in the First Nations Land Management Act, which was assented to June 17, 1999.

Framework Agreement Executive Summary
Framework Agreement Full Summary
Framework Agreement on First Nation Land Management


Looking for more information on the Framework Agreement? Download our reports below.

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The purpose of this study was to 1. Capture the current costs and benefits of implementing the Framework Agreement on First Nations Land Management (FA) to ascertain the true cost to First Nations and Canada. 2. To estimate the cost and benefits of expanding the number of signatories to the FA. and  3. Contribute to the “business case” for increased investment by GOC.

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This 2013 study updates the 2009 “Framework Agreement Benefit/Cost Review” initially conducted to estimate economic and social benefits accruing to First Nations who have ratified their land codes under the Framework Agreement on First Nations Land Management (hereafter called “operational First Nations” and “Framework Agreement”). Through the use of comparative analysis, this 2013 report captures the progress, incremental changes and experiences of 32 operational First Nations.

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This report is the result of the Partial Benefit-Cost Analysis (PBCA) study undertaken to quantify the economic role and impact of the Framework Agreement (FA) on First Nations Land Management (FNLM). The study documents the value and benefit of the Framework Agreement to the Canadian national economy.

Lands Advisory Board, 2012

Framework Agreement Chart
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